The kings had so thoroughly centralized the system that most nobles spent their time at Versailles, and played only a small direct role in their home districts. Thompson says that the kings had: The king was a figurehead, the nobility had lost all their titles and most of their land, the Church lost its monasteries and farmlands, bishops, judges and magistrates were elected by the people, the army was almost helpless, with military power in the hands of the new revolutionary National Guard. From the social point of view, the Revolution consisted in the suppression of what was called the feudal system, in the emancipation of the individual, in greater division of landed property, the abolition of the privileges of noble birth, the establishment of equality, the simplification of life
Muslim conquests Europe in While the Roman Empire and Christian religion survived in an increasingly Hellenised form in the Byzantine Empire centered at Constantinople in the East, Western civilization suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in AD Gradually however, the Christian religion re-asserted its influence over Western Europe.
The Book of Kells. Danish seamen, painted midth century. The Viking Age saw Norseman explore, raid, conquer and trade through wide areas of the West. After the Fall of Romethe papacy served as a source of authority and continuity. In the absence of a magister militum living in Rome, even the control of military matters fell to the pope.
Gregory the Great c — administered the church with strict reform. A trained Roman lawyer and administrator, and a monk, he represents the shift from the classical to the medieval outlook and was a father of many of the structures of the later Roman Catholic Church.
According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, he looked upon Church and State as co-operating to form a united whole, which acted in two distinct spheres, ecclesiastical and secular, but by the time of his death, the papacy was the great power in Italy: From this time forth the varied populations of Italy looked to the pope for guidance, and Rome as the papal capital continued to be the center of the Christian world.
Roman legions had never conquered Ireland, and as the Western Roman Empire collapsed, Christianity managed to survive there. Monks sought out refuge at the far fringes of the known world: Disciplined scholarship carried on in isolated outposts like Skellig Michael in Ireland, where literate monks became some of the last preservers in Western Europe of the poetic and philosophical works of Western antiquity.
Later in the 6th century, the Byzantine Empire restored its rule in much of Italy and Spain. Missionaries sent from Ireland by the Pope helped to convert England to Christianity in the 6th century as well, restoring that faith as the dominant in Western Europe.
Working as a trader he encountered the ideas of Christianity and Judaism on the fringes of the Byzantine Empire, and around began preaching of a new monotheistic religion, Islamand in became the civil and spiritual leader of Medinasoon after conquering Mecca in By the early 8th century, Iberia and Sicily had fallen to the Muslims.
By the 9th century, MaltaCyprusand Crete had fallen — and for a time the region of Septimania.
From this time, the "West" became synonymous with Christendomthe territory ruled by Christian powers, as Oriental Christianity fell to dhimmi status under the Muslim Caliphates.
The cause to liberate the " Holy Land " remained a major focus throughout medieval history, fueling many consecutive crusadesonly the first of which was successful although it resulted in many atrocities, in Europe as well as elsewhere.
Charlemagne "Charles the Great" in English became king of the Franks. Under his rule, his subjects in non-Christian lands like Germany converted to Christianity.
Starting in the late 8th century, the Vikings began seaborne attacks on the towns and villages of Europe. Eventually, they turned from raiding to conquest, and conquered Ireland, most of England, and northern France Normandy.
These conquests were not long-lasting, however. In Alfred the Great drove the Vikings out of England, which he united under his rule, and Viking rule in Ireland ended as well.
In Normandy the Vikings adopted French culture and language, became Christians and were absorbed into the native population. By the beginning of the 11th century Scandinavia was divided into three kingdoms, NorwaySwedenand Denmarkall of which were Christian and part of Western civilization.Negative Effects From the French Revolution The French Revolution that began in was a watershed moment in human history, playing a pivotal role in the removal of monarchies throughout Europe and the establishment of Enlightenment ideals of separation of Church and State, along with “inalienable rights” and individual liberties for people.
Through the process of decolonization that began, in most African territories, at the close of World War II, African leaders gained greater political power under European rule.
In the decades that followed independence, they worked to shape the cultural, political, and . The earliest revolutionary wave in modern history was the Atlantic Revolutions, which began with the American Revolution of and, in , swept over to France.
Inspired by the idea of liberty, revolutionaries fought against aristocratic and colonial rule.
The Age of the Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America, – (2 vol ), highly influential comparative history; vol 1 online; Rapport, Mike, and Peter McPhee. "The International Repercussions of the French Revolution." in A . Positive and Negative Effects of Cold War on Germany Essay Sample When looking at the Cold War most everyone begins to think about the United States and the Soviet Union.
Even though these were the major countries that brought it up there are also other countries that . Simultaneously, western political system and education system were brought into the region as well. Mainly, the colonial powers have changed Southeast Asia politically, socially, and economically.
The paper will assess the economic, social, and political impact of colonial powers, particularly Europeans power, upon Southeast Asia and forecast.